Between 1750 and 1850 , the development of power-driven machines transformed the lives of people first in Britain and then other European Countries and the United States. This period is known as “INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION”.Before the revolution , most people worked as farmers in the fields. Spinning and weaving were done at home. The invention of machines changed this. Thousands of workers seeking more pay moved into the towns to work in the newly built factories , which housed this big machines.
Children as young as six years old worked in the factories , until 1833 when under-nines were banned. They worked up to 12 or 14 hrs a day with few breaks. Sometimes , they were injured or even killed by the machinery.
The USA became the world’s leading cotton producer , thanks to the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney. This machine could quickly separate the cotton fibers from the seeds , which had previously taken ages by hand.
In 1804 , Richard Trevithick added wheels to his steam engine so that it could run along tracks. Within thirty years , a network of railways for transporting raw materials , goods and people by steam locomotives was constructed. Travelling around was now much quicker.
Timeline Of Industrial Invention
Thomas Newcomen built the first commercially successful steam engine.It was used to pump water out of mines.
James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny – a mechanized spinning wheel that could spin eight threads at once.
Samuel Crompton’s water-powered , spinning “mule” was brought by many factory owners.
Textile-making could be done much faster by Edmund Cartwright’s power loom.
Cotton could be produced much faster with Eli Whitney’s cotton gin.
Joseph-Marie Jacquard’s loom was the first machine to be controlled by punched cards – an idea later used in computing.
The world’s first all-steam passenger railway opened in Britain.